DWARF Standard


140817.1 Michael Eager Fast Name Lookup Enhancement Withdrawn Michael Eager

Section 6.1.1, pg 126

The pubnames and pubtypes data described in Section 6.1 are
much larger than needed, since they contain redundant information,
and the are missing other information, such as local symbol names.
This proposal is to replace the current .debug_pubnames and 
.debug_pubtypes sections with a new section named .debug_names.

This proposal is an alternate to 130410.1 and has adopted a 
number of the features of that proposal. 

The following issues with the existing sections will be addressed:

  1. A consumer cannot identify what a specific symbol from these sections is
     (type, function, etc) without reading from the .debug_info section.

  2. A consumer has to check multiple sections if they don't know what type
     the symbol is beforehand.

  3. These sections are defined to only contain "global" objects, functions,
     and types, but consumers often wish to access non-global symbols as well.

  4. The existing standard does not specify exactly which symbols should be
     emitted.  For instance, are names of enumerators included?

  5. Global symbols which are "localized" into non-global symbols are excluded
     from these sections.  If a routine is inlined but has no out-of-line
     instance then there would be no entry emitted for the routine.

  6. Many of the strings emitted into the pubnames section are used in other
     sections, and space can be saved by emitting string table references

Additionally, we also include the following design goals:

  1. We want to keep look-ups fast and optimize for the not-found case.  If
     a symbol exists in a single compilation unit out of four-hundred, we want
     to quickly eliminate the three-hundred ninety-nine which do not contain
     the requested symbol.

  2. The on-disk representation should be as small as possible.  Additionally,
     because consumers use this information in different ways, it should be
     possible to omit the unused portions to reduce file size.

The new .debug_names section will contain all symbols, both local and
public, which are present in the compilation unit.  Minimally, the section
will contain only global symbol and type names, but additional optional 
accelerator data may be included to improve search performance.


Replace Section 6.1.1 with the following:
6.1.1 Lookup by Name

For lookup by name, one or more Name Lookup Tables are maintained in a separate 
object file section named .debug_names.  The Name Lookup Table consists of 
a Name Subtable and an optional Lookup Table.  The Name Subtable contains 
the names of objects, functions, or types whose definitions are represented by
debugging information entries within by a single compilation unit.  The optional
Lookup Table is used to accelerate searching the Name Subtable.  Name Subtable

The Name Subtable immediately follows the Name Lookup Table header.  It
consists of the a series of entries for names defined in the compilation
unit, each followed by optional additional information.

If DW_NAME_TABLE_USES_DEBUG_STR in the header is set, then each entry is a 
ULEB128 offset into the .debug_str section for the name, otherwise each enry
is a zero-terminated UTF-8 string.  

If DW_NAME_TABLE_HAS_TAG in the header is set, each name is followed by the
a ULEB128 value of the TAG of the DIE which defines the name.

If DW_NAME_TABLE_HAS_DIE in the header is set, this is followed by a ULEB128
value with the offset of into the .debug_info section of the DIE which defines
the name.

If DW_NAME_TABLE_HAS_PARENT_DIE in the header is set, this is followed by a
ULEB128 value with the offset of into the .debug_info section of the parent of
the DIE which defines the name.  If the parent DIE field is present, the
name should be the unqualified symbol name.  If the parent DIE field is absent,
the name be the fully qualified (scoped) symbol name using delimiters appropriate
for the source language of the compilation unit.

If DW_NAME_TABLE_PUBNAMES in the header is set, the table contains only the
names of global objects, functions, and types.  Otherwise, the Name Subtable
contains all names defined by debugging information entries in the compilation
unit.  If this option is set, the names are essentially identical to those
in .pubnames and .pubtypes in previous versions of DWARF.

C++ member functions with a definition in the class declaration are
definitions in every compilation unit containing the class declaration,
but if there is no concrete out-of-line instance there is no need to 
have a entry for the member function. Lookup Table

The Lookup Table provides information to quickly determine whether a 
particular name is present in the compilation unit.  The Lookup Table 
is optional.  It consists of two parts, the Map followed by the Index List.

The Map consists of a sequence of fixed sized (4 byte) entries.  It is 
indexed by the digest of the name (see below) modulo the size of the Map.
Each entry in the Map is an offset from the start of the Index List.  

The Index List consistes of one or more sequences of individual entries.  
Each sequence is referenced by only one Map entry.  The entries start 
with a ULEB128 value with the offset into the Name Subtable.  If DW_LOOKUP_HAS_DIGEST 
is set in the header, this is followed by a four byte value containing 
digest of the name.  If DW_LOOKUP_HAS_DIGEST is set in the header, the
Index List entries are in ascending order of the digest value, otherwise
they are unordered.  Each sequence is terminated by a zero.  

An entry of 0xffffffff in a Map entry indicates that no Index List entry

[ Alternate design choice;  
  The Index list could have fixed size entries and a count field,
  which would allow the list to be search using a binary search
  rather than sequentially.  ]  Mapping Function

The mapping function is applied to the name to generate a four byte 
digest of the name.  A list of the standard mapping functions and their
detailed descriptions is found in Appendix X.

6.1.2  Physical representation

The .debug_names object file section contains a Name Lookup Table for each
Compilation Unit.  The Name Lookup Table begins with a header containing 
the following values:

1. unit_length (initial length)
   The total length of the all of the entries for the Name Lookup Table, not
   including the length field itself (see Section 7.2.2 on page 152).

2. version (uhalf)
   A version number (see Section 7.19 on page 185). This number is specific to
   the name lookup table and is independent of the DWARF version number.

3. debug_info_offset (section offset)
   The offset from the beginning of the .debug_info section of the compilation
   unit header referenced by the set.  The value is encoded as a ULEB128.

4. Name Subtable size (uword)
   The size in bytes of the Name Subtable.

5. Map Table size (uword)
   The size in bytes of the Map Table.

6. Index List size (uword)
   The size in bytes of the Index List.

7. Name Lookup options (uhalf)
   A binary value containing the following flag bits:

   DW_NAME_TABLE_PUBNAMES             (0x0001) -- Pubname/pubtypes only
   DW_NAME_TABLE_USES_DEBUG_STR       (0x0002) -- Entries to .debug_str
   DW_NAME_TABLE_HAS_TAG              (0x0004) -- Each entry has TAG
   DW_NAME_TABLE_HAS_DIE              (0x0008) -- Each entry has DIE offset
   DW_NAME_TABLE_HAS_PARENT_DIE       (0x0010) -- Each entry has parent offset
   DW_NAME_LOOKUP_HAS_DIGEST          (0x0020) -- Each entry has digest value
   RESERVED                           (0x00c0) -- Reserved must be zero
   DW_NAME_USER                       (0xff00) -- User extensions

The header is followed by the Name Subtable, and, if Map Table size and 
Index List size are non-zero, those tables.  If the Map Table is present,
the Name Subtable is padded so that the Map Table is starts on a four-byte

Appendix X.  Daniel J. Bernstein hash algorithm

Originally published in comp.lang.c, this algorithm has been empirically 
shown to be efficient and effective.

#include <stdint.h>
uint32_t djb_hash (const char *s)
        uint32_t h = 5381;
	unsigned char c;

        for (c = *s; c != '\0'; c = *++s)
                h = h * 33 + c;

        return h;

Appendix X.  Examples searching for names

Search for name, returning vector of dies which define that name.

dies[] = lookup_name ("name", NULL)

lookup_name (name, parent_dies) {
  digest = mapping_algorithm(name)
  map_index = digest % map_table_size
  name_list_index = map[map_index]
  if (name_list_index == 0xffffffff) then FAIL
  dies = []
  while (1) {
    name_index = readuleb128 (name_list_index)
    if (name_index == 0) break
      list_digest = read_tag (name_list_index)
      list_digest = read_digest (name_list_index)
      list_die = read_die (name_list_index)
      list_parent = read_parent (name_list_index)
    if (DW_NAME_TABLE_HAS_DIE && (list_digest != digest))
      name_index = read_debug_str (name_index)
    if (stringcmp (name, name_index) == 0)
      if (parent_dies == NULL) || 
        (list_parent in parent_dies))
      dies[] += list_die
  return dies

Searching for a member in a structure.

dies[] = lookup_member ("foo", "bar")

lookup_member (struct_name, member_name) {
  struct_dies = lookup_name (struct_name)
  dies = []
  for_each die in struct_dies {
    dies += lookup_name (member_name, struct_dies)
  return dies

11/19/2014 -- withdrawn.  

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